OHARA BASIC FORM
OHARA INCLINED FORM
For thousand of years people have loved the idea of using something on their face or body.It has been used for a wide variety of purposes like tribal recognition, status, spiritual/religious ceremonies, camouflage, hunting and beautification.The paint was made from white clay, flowers, berries, plant sap, tree bark,boot polish, mud and cosmetics.
Face painting was used for various religious ceremonies. Certain colors represent certain meanings amongst different tribes.
Red- the color of war and victory.
White- the color of peace.
Black- the color of power.
Green- worn under the eyes was supposed to empower the wearer with night vision.
Yellow- the color of death.
Mehendi was and is still practiced in India and the Middle East, especially on brides. The red dot, or ‘bindi,’ applied between the eyebrows, is a blessing derived from the red powder that was traditionally offered to God.
Face painting was used for camouflage in hunting as well as for fighting military battles.
It was also used for entertainment such as Opera, white faces by Japanese Geishas and Greek clowns.
Cosmetics were used by the Ancient Egyptians around 4000 BC.By the late Elizabethan era, both men and women were using face-paint, beauty spots and rouge to alter their appearance.
Face-painting has become common across the world, for a host of reasons. However, the way we see it used most often today is at sporting events, where supporters of teams use it in an almost tribal way to mark their team or national colors.
Nowadays face painting is a popular form of entertainment at parties, fairs and other special occasions.
Ikebana began as a kind of ritual flower offering made in Buddhist temples in Japan during the sixth century. In these arrangements, both the flowers and the branches were made to point toward heaven as an indication of faith.The first teachers and students were priests and members of the nobility.The oldest school of ikebana dates its beginnings from a priest of the Rokkakudo Temple in Kyoto.
A more sophisticated style of flower arrangement, called Rikka (standing flowers), appeared in the fifteenth century. The Rikka style reflects the magnificence of nature and their display. Rikka was mainly used for ceremonial occasions.
The most significant changes in the history of Ikebana took place during the fifteenth century, when the Muromachi shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimasa (1436- 1490) ruled Japan. It was during this period that the rules of ikebana were simplified so that people of all classes could enjoy the art.
In the late sixteenth century a more simple style of flower arrangement called nageire (meaning to throw in or fling in) appeared as part of the tea ceremony. Because of its association with the tea ceremony, this style is also called cha-bana.
In the 1890s, a new style of Ikebana called moribana (piled-up flowers) was developed.It is used for a landscape or a garden scene. This style appeared partly due to the introduction of western flowers and partly due to the westernization of Japanese living.
From the 19th century onwards, the number of ikebana schools increased significantly. Many Japanese houses now had an alcove – the tokonoma – where a painted scroll or calligraphy was hung, and beside it, an ikebana displayed, either to accompany a tea ceremony or in honour of guests.
In the 20th century, new techniques emerged (flat containers, pin-holders, etc.) which allowed the artists to express their creativity more freely.
In Japanese “ike” means to arrange and “bana” originates from the word “hana” meaning flower. Ikebana is the Japanese flower arrangement which is also referred to as kado (“the way of flowers”). The stems,leaves and flowers are arranged in vases or containers which together creates harmony. These arrangements use very few stems and leaves which are not seen in western styles. The shape and color of the vase is also of great importance to the final arrangement.There are certain rules and principles for these arrangements which were set over many centuries. Traditionally, arranged flowers were decorated in the Tokonoma,(the alcove) in Japanese rooms where guests were normally received.